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SOSKIN's Glossary

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

A

AHA (Alpha Hydroxy Acids)

They are carboxylic acids, mainly derived from fruit sugars. The main fruit acids are lactic, malic, glycolic, citric and tartaric acids. Fruit acids promote cell renewal but are also known to increase the elasticity of the skin by stimulating collagen production.


ALLANTOIN

Smoothing agent with calming and healing properties.


ALOE VERA

Hydrating and repairing properties. Major medicinal plant to care for and protect skin. Fights effectively against sunburn, cell ageing, eczema, psoriasis, etc. It accelerates skin healing.


ALPHA ARBUTIN

Natural molecule found in some plants such as cranberry or bearberry, Alpha Arbutin is the ideal solution to blot stains and effectively unify the skin.  Of natural origin, it preserves the balance of the skin. Thanks to its inhibitory properties, it prevents the synthesis of melanin (pigment responsible for the coloring) while sparing the producing cells.


AMINOLIFT

Lipoamino acid formulated to boost the flexibility of the skin’s support network and provide a feeling of shaping support.


ANTI-FREE RADICAL

It plays an active defence role in the cells (reduces the harmful effects of sun and pollution on skin). Is used to describe a molecule capable of neutralising free radicals (unstable chemical molecules.


ANTI-IMPERFECTION BOTANICAL COMPLEX

Made of burdock, plantain, mallow and thyme. It has a preventive action.


ANTIOXIDANTS

Set of molecules capable of neutralising free radicals, thus playing a defensive role in the membrane or cell. The main ones are:

- vitamins: E, C, A, beta-carotene

- minerals: selenium, zinc

- complex molecules of plant origin: polyphenols, flavonoids, anthocyanins, OPCs, carotenoids, etc.

-enzymes: glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase.

Antioxidants often cooperate together in the cell: for instance, vitamin C regenerates vitamin E.


APRICOT KERNEL OIL

Anti-dehydrating and anti-ageing.


APRICOT KERNEL POWDER

Mechanical exfoliating action.


ARGININE

Hydrating amino acid.


ARNICA FLOWER EXTRACT

Hydrating and soothing agent.


ATOPIC SKIN

Skin that has allergic reactions in the form of dermatitis.


AVOCADO OIL

Nourishing and anti-ageing.


AZELAIC ACID

As a derivative, it has an antibacterial action and combats pigmentation marks.

B

18 BETA-GLYCYRRHETINIC ACID

The main component of liquorice root combined with Centella Asiatica extract with soothing properties.


BAKUCHIOL EXTRACT

Bakuchiol is extracted from the seeds of Psoralea corylifolia, more commonly known as bakuchi, an Indian plant commonly used in Ayurvedic medicine. Thanks to its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-bacterial properties, bakuchiol helps to reduce imperfections.


BBD

Best Before Date


BIOMIMICRY

Biomimicry is the science of imitating and copying nature, all or part of a complex biological system for an artificial and industrial exploitation on objects of human conception. 


BLACKHEAD

Vermicular mass of whitish sebaceous matter, with a blackish top, in a pilosebaceous follicle most of the face, and in particular of the nose


BUCKWHEAT WAX

High concentration of phytosterols and unsaturated fatty acids. Minimises puffiness.

C

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CAFFEINE

Reviving action.


CENTELLA ASIATICA

Frequently called “tiger herb”, it benefits from healing properties.


CERAMIDES

Ceramides form lamellar laminae that serve as a barrier to water permeability of the epidermis. This is the stratum corneum, the outermost of the skin. In cosmetics, they prevent skin ageing.


CHAMOMILE

It has a soothing action on very sensitive skin; calming, antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory, antiallergic and softening.


CHAP

Fissured cutaneous skin lesion located readily on the fingers, lips or nipples. It is associated with dryness of the skin and found in several dermatological diseases (eczema, atopic dermatitis...). 


CHEMICAL PEEL

May denote either an exfoliator, or a cosmetic medicine technique designed to regenerate facial skin. Via substances such as AHAs or TCA, dead cells are removed (exfoliated) from the epidermis.

There are different types of peel depending on the type and concentration of the acid used:

  • superficial peel: product (such as AHA) applied by a doctor if concentration above 30% but possible at home for lower concentrations.
  • medium peel: product (such as TCA) exclusively applied by a doctor. Exfoliation proportional to the product’s concentration.
  • deep peel: product (such as Phenol) exclusively applied in a doctor’s surgery or clinic because it is quite traumatising (result comparable to the dermabrasion technique)


COCONUT OIL

Coating properties.


COLLAGEN

The most abundant protein in the human body, representing a quarter of protein mass. It is secreted by connective tissue cells. Unlike elastin, which is also found in the connective tissue, collagen is non-elastic and resistant to traction. In particular, it is indispensable in the healing process. From the age of 25, we lose 1% of collagen per year.


COMBINATION SKIN

We speak of combination skin when an oily area (the T-zone: nose, forehead, chin) and a dry area (cheeks, temples) coexist on the same face.


COPPER

Copper has astringent properties and an antimicrobial action. It is for this reason very often associated with zinc in dermocosmetics.


CORNFLOWER FLORAL WATER

Calming, soothing and decongesting action.


CORNFLOWER OIL

Calming and soothing.


CRUSTS OF MILK

Seborrheic dermatitis of the infant (or "crusts of milk") is a common skin disease, related in particular to an excess of fatty secretions of the scalp. It results in thick, crusty plaques, white or yellow. These symptoms can also affect the buttocks or skin folds.


CROW'S FEET

Small divergent wrinkles at the outer corner of the eye.


CUCUMBER EXTRACT

Rich in vitamins, trace elements and minerals. Hydrates and improves the radiance of the complexion.

D

DAMASK AND CENTIFOLIA ROSE FLORAL WATER

Toning action, leaves skin clear and comfortable.


DEHYDRATED SKIN

Skin lacking in water.


DERMIS

The dermis, a thick layer (1 to 2 mm) found between the epidermis and the hypodermis. An essential layer of the skin, it gives it its resistance and elasticity. It provides the epidermis with nutrition and support. It contains proteinaceous fibrillar tissue, the hair bulb, sebaceous and sweat glands. The latter secrete the sebum required to lubricate skin and protect it against numerous bacteria.


DESQUAMATION

Elimination of the superficial layers of the epidermis in the form of small lamellae (scales)


DRY SKIN

Dry skin is the consequence of a drop in the fatty substance – sebum – produced by the skin’s lipid layer. This lipid substance – sebum – creates a sort of barrier whose role is to keep skin hydrated. However, this barrier is weakened on dry skin and cannot prevent significant water loss. This lack of sebum combined with this loss of water creates dry skin.

E

ECZEMA

Eczema is a pruritic dermatosis characterized by non-contagious inflammation of the skin that is accompanied by redness, fine vesicles, scales and itching.


ELASTIN

Elastin is a protein of the structural fibrous protein family1. Secreted by fibroblasts mainly during the growth period, it has elastic properties that explain that the skin returns to its original shape after a pinch or stretch. Its synthesis decreases with age and elastin is replaced by inextensible collagen.


EMULSIFIER (also known as emulsifying agent)

In cosmetics, we are often find ourselves with an oily base and an aqueous base and, as these two elements cannot blend together correctly, manufacturers turn to emulsifiers to homogenise everything. We thus obtain an emulsion.


EPIDERMIS

Upper layer of the skin. Skin is made up of two layers of tissue, an external layer called the epidermis and an internal layer called the dermis. The skin’s surface, or epidermis, is made up of dead cells, which are removed by the rubbing engendered when we move, wear clothing or wash. Justunderneath, in the dermis, cells are living and extremely active. The epidermis renews itself every four weeks or so by removing superficial dead cells. It has a protective and skin hydration-regulating role.


EVENING PRIMROSE OIL

Regenerates and soothes.


EXFOLIANT

Is used in particular to describe a product that makes it possible to remove the dead parts of organic tissue. It may be chemical, plant or mineral.

F

FATTY SUBSTANCE

Around 40% to 60% of a cosmetic product. It may be of mineral origin (synthetic compounds derived from the petrochemicals industry, they are very cheap), synthetic origin (silicones) or plant origin (hydrating and nourishing).


FIBROBLAST

A fibroblast is a cell present in the connective tissue; it is sometimes called a support cell. It is in particular resident cells of the dermis that ensure consistency and flexibility.


FREE RADICALS

Free radicals are made in excess by the cells under the effect of different stresses. These are unstable molecules of oxygen that take the electrons of other molecules to self-stabilize. A chain reaction is then caused, leading to aging of the skin.

G

GINKGO BILOBA ROOT 

Anti-ageing + antioxidant, anti-free radical.


GLUCONOLACTONE

Moisturizing active ingredient particularly compatible with the skin, Gluconolactone is obtained by biotechnology and often enters the composition of very moisturizing care. It offers long-lasting hydration and can be used both on the skin and on dry and damaged hair.

H

HEXAPEPTIDES

Repetitive sequence of apolar amino acids (proline - glycine - valine - glycine - valine - alanine)


HEXYLRÉSORCINOL

HR with a purity of >99% is developed for skin care applications.This result along with its anti-glycation and stimulatory effects on cell protective glutathione and antioxidant defense enzymes made HR a key ingredient of choice in many skin brightening, anti-aging, skin protection and even-toning products.


HUMECTANT

Maintains the moisture content of a cosmetic product in its packaging and on skin (for example: hyaluronic acid, urea, etc.)


HYALURONIC ACID

It plays a significant role in cell proliferation and migration. In skin, it fills in intercellular spaces and contributes to tissue cohesion and hydration.


HYDROLIPID BARRIER

The hydrolipid film is a fine protective film found on the skin’s surface. It ensures that skin is not contaminated by external pathogens.

HYDROLIPIDIC FILM

Moisturising properties.  Diminue la perte en eau trans-épidermique en réduisant son évaporation. Rend la peau plus souple, plus extensible et plus lisse.


HYDROXYPROLINE

Hydroxyproline is an amino acid found mainly in collagen, connective tissue and skin.


HYPERPIGMENTATION

Hyperpigmentation is the term used to describe areas of uneven skin pigmentation. The hyperpigmentation appears as spots or dark spots on the skin that give the skin an uneven appearance. The spots are called age spots or sunspots. Hyperpigmentation is also at the heart of skin conditions such as melasma and post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation.


HYPOALLERGENIC

This term means "which reduces the risk of allergy". It is therefore to designate products designed to minimize the risk of allergic reaction (without totally excluding any risk). These products have been tested under the supervision of dermatologists and according to a rigorous experimental protocol (sensitization tests) on volunteers with sensitive skin.

I

INFLAMMATION

Inflammation is a natural and protective process resulting from an assault (allergy, infection, injury ...) and can sometimes become deleterious when it is the victim of a dysfunction. Inflammation is a defense mechanism of the first line in the face of aggression. It aims to recognize, destroy and eliminate all substances that are foreign to it.


INTOLERANT SKIN

It is more vulnerable to external aggressors and characterised by everyday discomfort and a very high level of irritability. It can be recognised by a number of more or less marked signs. Intolerant skin on the face, for example, presents redness and stinging. It feels tight, warm or itchy. It may also cause burning sensations.


IRIS EXTRACT

Derived from the crushed root of the plant, wild iris extract has astringent, mattifying and purifying properties. It is used in particular in cosmetic care for combination to oily skin which it will regulate the sebum and tighten the pores in depth for clean skin without imperfections.

J

JOJOBA OIL

Nourishing action.

K

KOJIC ACID

Derived from mushrooms, brightening action.

L

LACTIC ACID

Hydrating, softening and keratolytic action. Offers optimal tolerance, including for even the most sensitive skin.


LESION

A lesion is a pathological change in a tissue: it can be a wound or an injury or other tissue damage.

M

MACADAMIA OIL

Hydrating and nourishing.


MANDELIC ACID

Which is extracted from almonds, is good for restoring the cutaneous balance of acne-prone skin or for calming rosacea, because of its antibacterial and soothing properties. It also has an action on pigmentation.


MASK

Skincare products that complement facial skin hygiene and the application of creams to the face. It is generally recommended to apply a face mask once or twice a week. Face masks are applied to cleansed skin.



MATTIFYING

Which makes more matte (complexion, skin).


MECHANICAL PEEL

Manual action promising a complete “renewal” of facial skin. This peel consists of an accelerated renewal of cell activity for people whose skin has prematurely aged, especially due to the harmful effects of regular, prolonged sun exposure. 


MELANIN

Dark colored pigments (from black to reddish brown) found in skin, hair, hair and the membrane of the eye. The amount of melanin in an individual depends on several factors such as heredity, the level of hormones or certain diseases (eg Albino).


MENOPAUSAL SKIN

With age, skin loses its suppleness and becomes more sensitive, drier and rougher. Even people who have always had normal to oily skin find themselves, to varying degrees, with drier, more lined and more uncomfortable skin. Drier skin is still manageable. However, with the passage of time, skin loses the ability to repair itself and maintain its integrity. Problems can then take hold (irritation, redness and/or itching).


MICELLAR WATER

Micellar water is a liquid composed of water and micelles, that is, very small phospholipids that behave like an oil. Indeed, these having a hydrophilic part and a hydrophobic part, they have the possibility of clinging to impurities and dust.

N

NATURAL INGREDIENT

Unprocessed products extracted directly from farming production, harvesting and  cultivation. Only physical transformations are allowed (extraction, filtration and purification, mixing, cold pressing, etc.). The ingredients are plant-based (plant extracts), mineral (water, pigment, clay, etc.), marine (algae) or derived from animal production.


NIACINAMIDE (PP Vitamin)

It is a key component of many functions of our body. Used by our skin Niacinamide offers several actions: Rapid healing, anti-inflammatory effects, limit irritations, moisturizing effect of the different layers of the skin, fight against atopic states, decreases and regulates the production of melanin (brown spots).

O

OAT EXTRACT

Rich in soothing, antioxidant and nutritive ingredients. Particularly popular in skincare to soothe itch-prone skin.


OILY SKIN

Linked to excess sebum, which gives it a shiny appearance. Skin seems thick, skin texture is often uneven, and pores dilated. Oily skin represents fertile ground for the development of blackheads, microcysts, spots or acne.


OXIDATION

Oxidation, similar to the phenomenon of rust, causes damage at the cellular level. It results from stress, pollution, sun, cigarette... The cells are damaged and the quality of the skin altered


OXIDATIVE STRESS

This is an aggression, oxidation of the components of our body due to an excess of particularly harmful molecules that are known as free radicals and come from the oxygen that we breathe. This oxidation impairs our proteins, lipids, sugars and even our DNA, and consequently our cell membranes and cells. Our cells and their finest components “get rusty” just like a piece of metal left in the open air. This aggression towards our cells is one of the key causes of our ageing. 

P

PAPAYA EXTRACT

Exfoliating action.


PANTHENOL

Relieves feelings of discomfort.


PHYTIC ACID

Plants’ most abundant phosphorus component, found in the seeds. Exfoliating action.


PHENOXYETHANOL (or phenoxytol)

Found naturally in green tea and chicory, for example, this preservative is also part of the glycol ether family. It is often used as a solvent for other preservatives, especially parabens. This substance is a recognised very powerful allergen. It is authorised by legislation at a maximum concentration of 1% as a preservative.


PHOTOPROTECTION

Every means, naturals or artificials, to limit skin exposure to sun rays. 


PLANT GLYCERIN

Hydrating properties. Decreases transepidermal water loss by reducing its evaporation. Leaves skin suppler, smoother and more elastic.


POLYPHENOLS

Category of molecules mainly produced by plants. They consist of a blend of smaller molecules, phenols. We find them, for example, in large quantities in red wine or green tea. Their natural antioxidant property explains their use in treating many illnesses.


PORE

A pore is a small orifice on the surface of an integument or mucosa.


PRESERVATIVE

Cosmetics, composed for the most part of a mixture of water and fat, represent fertile ground for the development of micro-organisms (a few days are all it takes). Preservatives protect consumers by stemming the proliferation of fungi (yeasts and moulds) and pathogenic bacteria, which are dangerous for human health.

However, they are not entirely harmless to humans: they can cause allergies or irritation and have varying degrees of toxicity, depending on the doses. Certain cosmetics such as powders, eyeshadows, hydrating oils or serums do not need preservatives because they do not contain water.

R

RETINOL

Retinol is the active form of vitamin A. Powerful antioxidant, it helps fight against aging. Retinol also plays an important role in protecting the skin from external aggressions.


ROSACEA

A disorder of the skin's microvenous system that may affect any adult. Rosacea causes localised redness, which is benign but may be incapacitating. It is characterised by redness on the cheeks, nose, forehead and chin.

S

SALICYLIC ACID

Gentle exfoliating action.


SCALES

Small lamellae that come off the epidermis in several dermatosis (skin diseases).


SENSITIVE SKIN

Reactive skin, in other words skin that reacts more excessively to different elements: changes in temperature, cold, wind, sun, strong emotions (stress, etc.), hormonal changes (cycles, pregnancy, etc.). Sensitive skin manifests itself through itching, feelings of tightness and feelings of warmth.


SERUM

Product with a fluid texture, more concentrated in active ingredients than ordinary skincare, for reinforced effectiveness. Oily or very aqueous, a serum’s formula is rich in ingredients.


SHEA BUTTER

Known for its cosmetic properties, such as hydrating and softening skin. Protects skin from drying out; hydrating activity for skin, particularly soft and luscious properties. Healing action on wounds, treats dry, flaking dermatitis, chapped hands with cracks, ulcers, stretch marks and eczema by regenerating the upper layers of the epidermis.


SODIUM BICARBONATE

Effervescent action.


SOFT-FOCUS PIGMENTS

Blur microreliefs, fine lines and imperfections.


SOSKIN D-WHITE

Concentrated in hexylresorcinol, targets the roots of hyperpigmentation phenomena. Helps to reduce the appearance of visible dark spots on the surface and prevents nascent dark spots from appearing.


SPF

SPF (meaning Sun Protection Factor) is a measure of the level of protection against UVB. The sunscreens are grouped into 4 levels of SPF: Low (from 6 to 10), Medium (from 15 to 25), High (from 30 to 50) and Very High (50+).


STABILISED VITAMIN C

Helps to reduce the number of pigments contained in the epidermis. Helps to decrease the intensity of dark spots and pigmentation flaws.


SUN CAPITAL

Each individual has a "sun capital". This capital defines the time of exposure to solar radiation that the skin can withstand. Beyond this capital, the dangerousness of the rays is proven and it follows the appearance of problems, some of which can be serious.


SUN FILTER

The sun filter is the essential component of sunscreen products. There are two kinds of protective filters: mineral filters and chemical filters. Associated, they can effectively protect UVA and UVB.


SWEET ALMOND OIL

Restores finesse, radiance and suppleness to skin thanks to its softening and emollient properties.


T

TEA TREE ESSENTIAL OIL

Helps to reduce excess sebum.


TRACE ELEMENTS

Substances present in very small quantities in nutrients, which do not provide energy but are essential for the functioning of living organisms, including flora. Cobalt, copper, iodine, iron, fluorine, manganese, selenium, zinc are trace elements.

U

UNDEREYE BAG

Lymph and water no longer circulate, they stagnate, forming oedemas in the lower eyelid area. This puffiness may be treated by cosmetics with draining properties. Undereye bags are promoted by several factors, such as smoking, alcohol abuse or tiredness. 


UREA

Urea, which is found naturally in the human body, is the main way to excrete nitrogen compounds (derived from the metabolism of amino acids in humans). The liver breaks down amino acids into urea. Found in the epidermis, it comes mainly from the sweat glands and is one of the compounds that makes up the natural moisturising factor.


UVA

UVA are the ultraviolet rays that act most rapidly on the skin compared to UVB and are responsible for the almost immediate tanning effect. But, they accelerate skin aging and cause skin allergies


UVB

UVB rays reach the epidermis and are responsible for sunburn. If they stimulate the production of melanin, and therefore the appearance of tanning, they also alter the DNA of skin cells. Like UVA, UVB is involved in the formation of skin cancers.


UV RADIATIONS

Ultraviolet rays consist of invisible light, beyond the violet (hence its name ultraviolet), very short wavelength and very high energy. In the natural state, they are dispensed by the sun.


V

VASCULAR DARK CIRCLE

Skin colouration located under the lower eyelids, where the skin is very fine. Dark circles may be due to a lack of sleep, age, excessively fine skin, smoking, alcohol or stress. Loss of collagen may also cause dark circles to appear.


VITAMIN E

Hydrating action.


VITAMIN F 

In skincare, it is used to represent linoleic acid, an essential fatty acid that is rich in omega-6 and can help maintain a healthy protective layer of the skin.

W

WHEATGERM OIL

Nourishing action.


WHITE CLAY

Smoothing and absorbent properties.


WRINKLE

A wrinkle on skin is a cutaneous fracture due to the subsidence of dermal structures caused by the gradual disappearance of two proteins:

  • collagen”, consisting of fibres between connective tissue cells, which decreases as a result of stretching of certain areas of the face put under strain by various movements (grimaces and tics) and external aggressors (climate, injuries);
  • elastin, which acts on skin suppleness and a decrease in which leads to an increase in skin volume, such as a double chin, which appears with age.

Z

ZINC

Sanitizing and purifying, zinc helps treat skin infections and prevent the proliferation of bacteria on the skin. So, it is especially recommended for treating acne problems.


ZINC OXIDE

Natural anti-bacterial, zinc oxide is ideal to prevent the development of bacteria on problem skin. It is also an active anti-UV protector very useful for the realization of filters and solar protections.

 

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